pho is like putting together your own hamburger -- you can have it your
way. So, before putting any pho into your mouth, add your own finishing
touches. Then dive in with a two-handed approach: chopsticks in one hand
to pick up the noodles, the soup spoon in the other to scoop up broth
and other goodies.
Whether you go out for pho or make a bowl at home (see my recipe), your pho
ritual may include:
sprouts: Add them raw for crunch or blanch them first.
Who doesn't love noodles soup? In the Vietnamese repertoire, beef pho noodle soup is a classic. In fact, it's practically the national dish of Vietnam. Below is my family's recipe for the quintessential Vietnamese food -- pho noodle soup. You may have had bowls of pho in Vietnamese noodle shops, in Vietnam and abroad. but have you made some yourself? Before leaping into this beef pho noodle soup recipe, check out Pho Secrets and Techniques post for a primer on bones, charring the onion, saving some fat, etc. Also, read about the history and evolution of pho in Vietnam and America. Making pho noodle soup takes time but most of it is passive cooking. And remember, you can freeze pho broth for future bowls of steamy hot pho noodle soup!
For the broth: 2 medium yellow onions (about 1 pound total) 4-inch piece ginger (about 4 ounces) 5-6 pounds beef soup bones (marrow and knuckle bones) 5 star anise (40 star points total) 6 whole cloves 3-inch cinnamon stick 1 pound piece of beef chuck, rump, brisket or cross rib roast, cut into 2-by-4-inch pieces (weight after trimming) 1 1/2 tablespoons salt 4 tablespoons fish sauce 1 ounce (1-inch chunk) yellow rock sugar (duong phen; see Note)
For the bowls: 1 1/2-2 pounds small (1/8-inch wide) dried or fresh banh pho noodles ("rice sticks'' or Thaichantaboon) 1/2 pound raw eye of round, sirloin, London broil or tri-tip steak, thinly sliced across the grain (1/16 inch thick; freeze for 15 minutes to make it easier to slice) 1 medium yellow onion, sliced paper-thin, left to soak for 30 minutes in a bowl of cold water 3 or 4 scallions, green part only, cut into thin rings 1/3 cup chopped cilantro (ngo) Ground black pepper
Optional garnishes arranged on a plate and placed at the table: Sprigs of spearmint (hung lui) and Asian/Thai basil (hung que) Leaves of thorny cilantro (ngo gai) Bean sprouts (about 1/2 pound) Red hot chiles (such as Thai bird or dragon), thinly sliced Lime wedges
Prepare the pho broth:
Char onion and ginger.Use an open flame on grill or gas stove. Place onions and ginger on cooking grate and let skin burn. (If using stove, turn on exhaust fan and open a window.) After about 15 minutes, they will soften and become sweetly fragrant. Use tongs to occasionally rotate them and to grab and discard any flyaway onion skin. You do not have to blacken entire surface, just enough to slightly cook onion and ginger.
Let cool. Under warm water, remove charred onion skin; trim and discard blackened parts of root or stem ends. If ginger skin is puckered and blistered, smash ginger with flat side of knife to loosen flesh from skin. Otherwise, use sharp paring knife to remove skin, running ginger under warm water to wash off blackened bits. Set aside.
Parboil bones.Place bones in stockpot (minimum 12-quart capacity) and cover with cold water. Over high heat, bring to boil. Boil vigorously 2 to 3 minutes to allow impurities to be released. Dump bones and water into sink and rinse bones with warm water. Quickly scrub stockpot to remove any residue. Return bones to pot.
Simmer broth. Add 6 quarts water to pot, bring to boil over high heat, then lower flame to gently simmer. Use ladle to skim any scum that rises to surface. Add remaining broth ingredients and cook, uncovered, for 1 1/2 hours. Boneless meat should be slightly chewy but not tough. When it is cooked to your liking, remove it and place in bowl of cold water for 10 minutes; this prevents the meat from drying up and turning dark as it cools. Drain the meat; cool, then refrigerate. Allow broth to continue cooking; in total, the broth should simmer 3 hours.
Strain the pho broth through fine strainer. If desired, remove any bits of gelatinous tendon from bones to add to your pho bowl. Store tendon with cooked beef. Discard solids.
Use ladle to skim as much fat from top of the pho broth as you like. (Cool it and refrigerate it overnight to make this task easier; reheat befofe continuing.) Taste and adjust flavor with additional salt, fish sauce and yellow rock sugar. The pho broth should taste slightly too strong because the noodles and other ingredients are not salted. (If you've gone too far, add water to dilute.) Makes about 4 quarts.
Assemble pho bowls:
The key is to be organized and have everything ready to go. Thinly slice cooked meat. For best results, make sure it's cold.
Heat the pho broth and ready the noodles.To ensure good timing, reheat broth over medium flame as you're assembling bowls. If you're using dried noodles, cover with hot tap water and soak 15-20 minutes, until softened and opaque white. Drain in colander. For fresh rice noodles, just untangle and briefly rinse in a colander with cold water.
Blanch noodles. Fill 3- or 4-quart saucepan with water and bring to boil. For each bowl, use long-handle strainer to blanch a portion of noodles. As soon as noodles have collapsed and lost their stiffness (10-20 seconds), pull strainer from water, letting water drain back into saucepan. Empty noodles into bowls. Noodles should occupy 1/4 to 1/3 of bowl; the latter is for noodle lovers, while the former is for those who prize broth.
If desired, after blanching noodles, blanch bean sprouts for 30 seconds in same saucepan. They should slightly wilt but retain some crunch. Drain and add to the garnish plate.
Add other ingredients. Place slices of cooked meat, raw meat and tendon (if using) atop noodles. (If your cooked meat is not at room temperature, blanch slices for few seconds in hot water from above.) Garnish with onion, scallion and chopped cilantro. Finish with black pepper.
Ladle in broth and serve. Bring broth to rolling boil. Check seasoning. Ladle broth into each bowl, distributing hot liquid evenly so as to cook raw beef and warm other ingredients. Serve your pho with with the garnish plate.
Note:Yellow rock sugar (a.k.a. lump sugar) is sold in one-pound boxes at Chinese and Southeast Asian markets. Break up large chunks with hammer.
Variations: If you want to replicate the splendorous options available at pho shops, head to the butcher counter at a Vietnamese or Chinese market. There you'll find white cords of gan(beef tendon) and thin pieces of nam (outside flank, not flank steak). While tendon requires no preparation prior to cooking, nam should be rolled and tied with string for easy handling. Simmer it and the beef tendon in the cooking broth for two hours, or until chewy-tender.
Airy book tripe (sach) is already cooked when you buy it. Before using, wash and gently squeeze it dry. Slice it thinly to make fringe-like pieces to be added to the bowl during assembly. For beef meatballs (bo vien), purchase them in Asian markets in the refrigerator case; they are already precooked. Slice each one in half and drop into broth to heat through. When you're ready to serve, ladle them out with the broth to top each bowl.
text from a booklet written by Didier Corlou, former executive chef of the Sofitel
Metropole hotel and current chef/owner of Verticale restaurant in Hanoi. Published in 2003, the booklet came from a series
of seminars organized by Chef Corlou and the European Commission to Vietnam
to discuss the origins of pho noodle soup. Here's how the booklet is organized:
- by Frederic Baron, Delegation of the European Commission to Vietnam
Art - Didier Corlou
soup recalls my childhood's flavor - Cultural meanings and
emotional attachments to pho
Earthenware Stoves of Street Hawkers - French connection to
- by Didier Corlou
- by Didier Corlou
This document is presented online with the permission of Didier Corlou.
Below is an article that I originally wrote for the San Jose Mercury News. It was published in 2004. The photos were taken by me, not the paper.
Ask someone to name a Vietnamese dish, and he or she will most likely say pho (rhymes with "duh''). Twenty-nine years ago, who would have dreamed that the national soup of Vietnam would be so well embraced in America?
Perhaps it's because Vietnamese emigrants decided to settle all over the United States, and wherever we are, there's sure to be pho. The heady broth, chewy rice noodles, sweet spices and scintillating herbs provide comfort in a bowl.
My life this summer has been excruciatingly hectic with launching the Asian Culinary Forum in San Francisco and working on a writing project. To take away from the pressures of putting together a home-cooked food every day, I’ve resorted to taking an instant ramen holiday.
Stop laughing. When I was in Hong Kong this spring, what were people snacking on for breakfast and lunch? Instant noodles. They were paying for it! My first morning in Kowloon, I had a shallow bowl of instant ramen noodles with a lovely fried pork chop and some Chiu Chow chili oil. In Central on Hong Kong side, young people hovered in stalls eating instant noodles during their lunch breaks. Instant noodles are cheap and fast. You can doll up the ramen with practically anything.
That got me thinking about instant pho noodle packets sold at many Chinese and Southeast Asian markets. Hell, at the humongous Ranch 99 in Milpitas a few days ago, there was an entire aisle devoted to a pan-Asian selection of instant noodles. My interest was in the Vietnamese stuff and I had a number of revelations over the course of several meals of instant noodles.